Seminar Series

The seminar will provide an overview of the “Collaborative for Innovation in Data & Measurement in Aging” (CIDMA). CIDMA is a collaboration between the Duke Center for Population Health and Aging (CPHA) and the University of Chicago’s Center for Health Aging Behaviors and Longitudinal Investigations (CHABLIS) and their respective P30 NIA Center grants. CIDMA and its investigative team, collaborates with existing data collection studies of aging to design and conduct assessments of innovative and untested data collection and measurement methods and to disseminate and educate the field of aging research on the successes and shortcomings on these innovations. The seminar will provide an overview of CIDMA’s approach and criteria for the types of in-novation it assesses. We also will discuss findings from a recent assessment of the collection of data on social engagement/isolation related to individuals’ daily activities and spatial movements (or lack of them) in rural settings using mobile technology. This assessment was conducted in collaboration with two existing studies housed at Duke, the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) and Project RAISE (Re-search on Adaptive Interests, Skills and Environment).
Date
11/18/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link. 
Cross-national comparisons form the basis of much of what we understand about the link between gender inequality at the societal level and family change. There has been little attention to this process in the United States, despite substantial variation in structural features of gender inequality and families across states. We leverage this variation to examine how state-level gender inequality shapes couple-level inequality following the critical transition to parenthood, in particular how state gender wage gaps, parenthood employment penalties, early family formation, and attitudes about working mothers moderate changes in couples’ relative earnings after a first birth. Our study relies on newly available identifiers in the Current Population Survey to link couples longitudinally across the 16 months of their participation in the survey, and it includes four decades of overlapping panels. Preliminary findings suggest that state-level gender inequality shapes couples’ responses to birth, with greater within-household inequality in earnings among couples living in states with fewer working mothers and less progressive attitudes about working mothers.
Date
11/11/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link. 
Allison Stolte, Predoctoral Student, Department of Sociology, Duke University, presents, "State-level Contexts and Birth Outcomes: Do Types of Public Policy Approaches Shape Birth Outcomes?" Geographic disparities in birth outcomes have increased across the US over the last several years. Prior work suggests that socioeconomic structures and political institutions may shape such disparities through policies aimed at redistributing resources and providing health services (Montez, Hayward, and Wolf 2017; Navarro and Shi 2001). Of course, policies aimed at redistributing resources do not combine randomly. Instead, there are likely types of public policy approaches taken by states to shape socioeconomic and political contexts. In this paper, I first identify types of state policy approaches and then examine how the unique policy approaches shape birth outcomes. To do this, I merge state-level data on six domains of socioeconomic and political contexts to estimate profiles of state policy approaches using latent profile analysis. I then merge the identified profile data with rates of low birth weight and infant mortality from the CDC to regress state policy approach on rates of adverse birth outcomes. Preliminary findings identify three types of policy approaches taken by states. The policy approaches are associated with birth outcome rates, though differences exist by birth outcome examined. Sarah Petry, Predoctoral Student, Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University, presents,  "Transitions in Older Adulthood and Life Expectancy: A Life Course Approach."   The population of Medicare-Medicaid dual eligible beneficiaries (“duals”) is growing rapidly. These beneficiaries are important to study because they comprise a vulnerable subset of publicly insured people in the US due to economic disadvantage, age, and chronic illness. However, little is known about how transitions into and out of dual eligibility, accompanied by care transitions, impact mortality. Previous research has shown that Medicaid enrollment has positive mortality effects on younger beneficiaries and that Medicare is protective for previously uninsured individuals. In addition, transitions in care setting are known to negatively impact health, but little is known about how long individuals can expect to live in skilled nursing facilities (SNF) before they die or move out. This study uses multistate life table methods on data from ten waves of the Health and Retirement Study to examine differences in dual-eligible and SNF life expectancy by gender, race/ethnicity, and age.
Date
11/04/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Coercive labor (adult labor trafficking and child labor) is astonishingly prevalent worldwide. Poverty creates vulnerability to labor coercion, but quantitative evidence on how anti-poverty programs mitigate this vulnerability is scarce – particularly for adult labor trafficking. This paper provides new evidence on how conditional cash transfer programs, cornerstones of anti-poverty policy in lower-income countries, influence coercive labor risk, focusing on Brazil’s Bolsa Familia program. Using multiple regression discontinuity designs, we find evidence of limited effects on adult labor trafficking risk. By contrast, we also find that the program does substantially reduce child labor among the poor – but not among those classified as living in extreme poverty. Our results suggest that for adults, income gains alone may be insufficient to reduce labor trafficking risk -- and complementary action against criminal recruiters may be simultaneously required. Coercive labor (adult labor trafficking and child labor) is astonishingly prevalent worldwide.  Poverty creates vulnerability to labor coercion, but quantitative evidence on how anti-poverty programs mitigate this vulnerability is scarce – particularly for adult labor trafficking. This paper provides new evidence on how conditional cash transfer programs, cornerstones of anti-poverty policy in lower-income countries, influence coercive labor risk, focusing on Brazil’s Bolsa Familia program.  Using multiple regression discontinuity designs, we find evidence of limited effects on adult labor trafficking risk.  By contrast, we also find that the program does substantially reduce child labor among the poor – but not among those classified as living in extreme poverty.  Our results suggest that for adults, income gains alone may be insufficient to reduce labor trafficking risk -- and complementary action against criminal recruiters may be simultaneously required.
Date
10/28/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Room 270 Gross Hall/ SSRI
The study of social inequality and stratification (e.g. ethnoracial and gender) has long been at the core of sociology and the social sciences. I argue that certain tendencies have become entrenched in our dominant paradigm that leaves many researchers pursuing coarse-grained analyses of how difference relates to inequality. Centrally, despite the importance of categories and categorization for how researchers study social inequality, contemporary theories of categories are poorly integrated into conventional research. I argue that the widespread and often unquestioned use of State categories as categories of analysis reinforces these tendencies. Using research on skin tone stratification (or colorism) as an inspiration, I highlight several components of an alternative model that better integrates contemporary theories of categories into measuring the social difference. Above all, this model proposes an analytic shift in focus from membership in categories to the cues of categories, membership in sub-categories, and perceived typicality.
Date
10/21/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link. 
The US has a long history of housing discrimination.  Since the passage of the Fair Housing Act, HUD has sought to measure the extent of that discrimination with a series of audit studies.  Critiques of audit studies have questioned the ability of these and other similar experimental methods to measure discrimination on the margins where individuals are affected in actual market contexts.  We implement the largest correspondence study of discrimination in rental housing markets, and show how combining the results with actual market outcomes and with structural estimation techniques can confirm that discrimination indeed has market consequences, and that sorting behavior on the part of market participants can actually make the consequences of that discrimination worse.
Date
10/14/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link. 
The life course perspective has long theorized that adversity in childhood, a sensitive period for mental, physical, and emotional development, can have long-lasting impacts on health and wellbeing. However, research on the long-term impact of childhood adversity has been disproportionally focused on studying a single adversity, or studying cumulative adversity operationalized as the sum of dichotomous (yes/no) indicators reflecting exposure to negative events. Although informative, these approaches mask how specific types of adversities co-occur, and how unique configurations of adversities relate to outcomes of interest. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; Wave I-IV), I estimate cumulative adversity using latent class analyses. As opposed to a summative score, these classes reflect both the type and number of adverse events that may co-occur in childhood. I then investigate how these latent classes of adversity predict depressive symptoms from adolescence into early adulthood, clarifying the long-term mental health risks of early life adverse events. Throughout this study, I discuss the methodological benefits and challenges to estimating cumulative adversity using a latent class approach.
Date
10/07/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Gross Hall, Room 270
The United States is undergoing major demographic changes including an increase in life expectancy and a rapidly growing aging population. These demographic shifts are expected to strain social assistance programs and families. While the extended family plays a significant role as a source of caregiving and financial support to its members, decision-making within the extended family is relatively understudied due to lack of adequate data. In this project, I employ rich data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and extend economic household decision-making models to examine how extended families allocate resources. I find that families do not pool their resources or allocate them in an efficient manner, leaving welfare gains on the table. I then explore why efficiency may not prevail in extended families by examining information asymmetry. I present descriptive evidence for the existence and extent of information asymmetry in the family, and I find that families with better information allocate their resources more efficiently. These findings provide suggestive evidence that information asymmetry may hinder efficient resource allocations in the family.
Date
9/30/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link. 
Studies on unemployment typically assess its costs on the individual level. However, when unemployment occurs, individuals, their families, and their kin all lose. Close kin provide the majority of social support for unemployed adults. Applying demographic and statistical techniques to official statistics and multiple survey datasets, we assess the prevalence of and exposure to unemployment in the United States from a kinship perspective. The results indicate dramatic racial disparities in the number of unemployed kin and the number of kin who would be affected by an unemployed person. Specifically, during the pandemic-induced recession, black Americans have 1.7unemployed people in their extended family compared to 1.2 among whites. Further, every job loss in a black extended family affects approximately 23 related members of the family through kinship ties, but this number among whites is only about 20. The findings of this study draw attention to the need for an understanding of unemployment and its demographic implications, which are stratified by race.
Date
9/23/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link. 
In the U.S., early childhood investments such as breastfeeding and daily reading are strongly promoted by pediatricians and public health campaigns as critical investments in children’s health and cognitive development. Qualitative research on gender, work, and family shows that women unambiguously find these investments difficult to combine with paid work. This study uses a nationally representative sample and an event study design to examine how breastfeeding intensity and reading daily to young children shape mothers’ labor supply, wages, and job characteristics over the short and long term in the U.S.
Date
9/16/2021
Time
3:30pm - 5:00pm
Venue
Zoom Seminar. Please contact laura.satterfield@duke.edu to obtain Seminar Link.